Science teacher: In any nation, a flourishing national scientific community is essential to a successful economy. For...

Kenji on April 11 at 03:47PM

Don't quite understand the condition

I don't know how to reach to this: ~GCSP - > ~YPES - > ~FNSC - > ~SE. How do we go from ~GCSP- > ~SE to the above? Thanks.

1 Reply

Ben on April 11 at 08:24PM

Hi Kenken, thanks for the question

The idea here is that separate sufficient/necessary statements are made. In this passage, the use of "is essential", "is required", and "is necessary" is used to indicate the necessary conditions in each statement.

SE -> FNSC

FNSC -> YPES

YPES -> GCSP

Combining all of these statements gives us:

SE -> FNSC -> YPES -> GCSP

The contrapositive of this entire chain is what you have written up there!

~GCSP -> ~ YPES -> ~FNSC -> ~SE

Answer choice C says:

No nation can have a successful economy unless at some point scientists have communicated well with the public

This is diagrammed as:

SE -> GCSP

This is directly supported from our chain of inferences.

I hope this helps. Please let me know if you have any other questions.