The author uses the word "immediacy" (line 39) most likely in order to express

jsmart3211 on December 5, 2018

S&N "NO"

What if the necessary condition is already negative?

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Jacob-R on December 5, 2018

Hi @jsmart3211

Is your question about determining the contrapositive when the necessary condition is already negative? If so, you negate the negative! That is, not x becomes not not x, and thus x.

An example: If the specimen is a fish, it is NOT a mammal.

To find the contrapositive, we negate the negative. If it is a mammal, the specimen is not a fish.

If you encounter this on a practice problem please comment there, and I’ll help show you how it applies with respect to that particular question.

I hope that helps.

jsmart3211 on December 7, 2018

Thank you