The author uses the word "immediacy" (line 39) most likely in order to express

J on January 24, 2019

Question 3 - Question on S&N introducers...

Question 3 on the examples of the video is about the sociologists, climate, and migration. The 2 identifiers in the stimulus are "always" and "necessary". Why in sentence 2 does the identifier "always" not introduce the sufficient? Rather it is that Drastic shifts in climate change -> Migration. I guess I am confused because "always" introduces the sufficient. Is not migration the sufficient? M->DSCC?

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Jacob on February 1, 2019

Hi @jskaggs,

Good question. “Always” in the second clause is introducing the sufficient, albeit with a confusing word order. That is, the “always” is not necessarily connected to what follows in the sentence, at least insofar as formal logic is concerned. What do I mean by that?

The clause in the passage is: Drastic shifts in climate always results in migrations.

But notice that this could also be rewritten as:

It is ALWAYS the case that drastic shifts in climate results in migrations.


Drastic shifts in climate results in migrations, ALWAYS.

Notice: it doesn’t matter where in the sentence “always” is. Instead, we are interested in the logical relationship between drastic shifts in climate and migrations, and the fact that drastic shifts in climate “always” result in migrations. Therefore, wherever the always is, we know that as a formal matter what any of these 3 sentences is really saying is:

IF drastic shift in climate THEN migration.

Does that help explain the how the “always” is getting used here? If not, please let me know and I’ll try again!


J on February 5, 2019


Ravi on February 5, 2019

@jskaggs Happy you found Jacob's response helpful. Let us know if you have any additional questions—we're here to help!