The author uses the word "immediacy" (line 39) most likely in order to express

Robert on May 28 at 03:46PM

Trouble making sure have the right variables

For example The mayor has been accused of taking a bribe based on the fact that the consultant that does business with the city paid for improvements to the mayors vacation house In his own defense the mayor had said that he paid every bill for those improvements hat was presented to him How would extract the main variables from the sentence structures, I’m having trouble with he principe and the situation of the paragraph and deciding the right main logic ?

8 Replies

Ravi on May 28 at 04:26PM

@sigmajonez14, could you clarify what you're referring to? If you're talking about structuring your conditional logic diagrams properly, it's important that you better familiarize yourself with the video lessons on sufficient and necessary conditions (as well as quantifiers) so that when you diagram, you know where to put your variables/terms.

Hope this helps. Let us know if you have any more questions!

Robert on May 28 at 06:50PM

okay I am finding the words such as for the sufficient and the necessary or the quantifier but then I get stuck on which words to use such as for the quantifiers first question


planetary bodies differ from one another in their compostion, but most of those in the solar system have solid surfaces . unless the core of such planetary body generates enough heat to cause a volcanic action
n, the surface of the body will not be renewed for millions of years .

then to diagram it i would
pb most ss
pb ->core but i get stuck on including Va
pb->ss->Rcrossed
Pb some SiS +fmc

i don't know what to do when the necessary has another part and i get stuck

Victoria on May 28 at 09:24PM

Hello @sigmajonez14

I think you may be overthinking the diagramming a bit. Let's go through the first quantifiers example together.

"Planetary bodies differ from one another in their composition, but most of those in the solar system have solid surfaces."

What we can take from this is that most planetary bodies in the solar system have solid surfaces:

Planetary bodies in the solar system - most - solid surfaces
PB - most - SS

"Unless the core of such a planetary body generates enough heat to cause volcanic action, the surface of the body will not be renewed for millions of years."

For this sentence, you do not need to diagram 'planetary body,' 'core,' and 'volcanic action' separately. We know that 'unless' introduces a necessary condition, so the necessary condition in this statement is the core of the planetary body generating enough heat to cause a volcanic action and the sufficient condition is the surface of the planetary body being renewed.

Surface renewed - > Core heat causes volcanic action
SR - > CVA

The contrapositive of this is:

Core heat does not cause volcanic action - > surface is not renewed
not CVA - > not SR

"Any planetary body with a solid surface whose surface is not renewed for millions of years becomes heavily pockmarked by meteorite craters, just like the Earth's Moon."

We know that 'any' introduces the sufficient condition. So the sufficient condition for this statement is a planetary body with a solid surface which has not been renewed for millions of years and the necessary condition is being heavily pockmarked by meteorite craters.

Planetary body surface not renewed for millions of years - > Heavily pockmarked by meteorite craters
not PBSR - > heavy MC
no heavy MC - > PBSR

"Some old planetary bodies in the solar system, such as Europa, a very cold moon belonging to Jupiter, have solid icy surfaces with very few meteorite craters."

Planetary bodies - some - Solid icy surfaces with few meteorite craters
PB - some - SS w FMC

So, using these diagrammed statements, we can conclude that answer choice E is correct.

Answer choice E states: "some very cold planetary bodies have cores that generate enough heat to cause volcanic action."

We know from our diagrams and the transitive property that, if a planetary body is not heavily pockmarked by meteorite craters, then its surface has been renewed and if the surface of a planetary body has been renewed, then the core generates enough heat to cause volcanic action.

As Europa is not heavily pockmarked by craters and the passage tells us that it is "very cold," then we can conclude that some very cold planetary bodies have cores that generate enough heat to cause volcanic action which is directly restated by E.

Hope this is helpful! There is also a video explanation for this question so you can watch Mehran draw out the diagrams as he goes through the question with you if you are more of a visual learner.

Please don't hesitate to let us know if you have any further questions.

Robert on May 28 at 10:17PM

okay i did not put heavy, and other descriptive words when diagraming but will start, so its mostly abbreviating the sentence into any way the argument goes, and also i was working on number six for Quantifiers and got stuck on the diagraming afterwards,


I most crossR
p some BA

pp some h
pp some o
r some b or h
i most p
paragraph was …...most people invest in the stock market wthout doing any research of their own

i diagramed the paragraph but had hard time with combining the like sufficient terms, to make a transitive property, i made the contrapositive diagram also but got stuck

Robert on May 29 at 07:20PM

okay i did not put heavy, and other descriptive words when diagraming but will start, so its mostly abbreviating the sentence into any way the argument goes, and also i was working on number six for Quantifiers and got stuck on the diagraming afterwards,


I most crossR
p some BA

pp some h
pp some o
r some b or h
i most p
paragraph was …...most people invest in the stock market wthout doing any research of their own

I have diagramed the paragraph but have a hard time with combining the like sufficient terms, to make a transitive property, i made the contrapositive diagram also but got stuck

Ravi on May 30 at 02:04AM

@sigmajonez14, your questions are blank on the screen. Did you have a question? If so, let us know what it is, and we'll be happy to help.

Robert on May 30 at 02:13PM

Most people invest in the stock market market without doing any research of their own. some of these people rely solely on their brokers advice whereas some others make decisions based merely on hunches. other people do some research of their own, but just as often rely only on their broker or on hunches, only a few always do their own research before investing . nonetheless a majority of investors in the stock market make a profit.

I most crossR
p some BA

pp some h
pp some o
r some b or h
i most p
paragraph was …...most people invest in the stock market wthout doing any research of their own

I have diagramed the paragraph but have a hard time with combining the like sufficient terms, to make a transitive property, i made the contrapositive diagram also but got stuck

Ravi on May 31 at 06:21PM

@sigmajonez14 your box is still blank. Let us know if you have a question on this problem.