Graham: The defeat of the world's chess champion by a computer shows that any type of human intellectual activity go...

Samuel on June 27, 2019


Can you please explain why D is wrong and C is right? Thank you!


Julie on August 21, 2019

Would also love an explanation for (C) as well!

I chose (C) based on Graham's example of the computer beating the world champion, but Adelaide's comment about how the computer was programmed by humans. If someone could confirm or correct it, I would greatly appreciate it. Thanks!

Irina on August 21, 2019


That's right. Graham is using an example of a computer defeating a chess champion to argue that computers can master any intellectual activity governed by fixed principles, and Adelaide is saying that all the credit for that defeat goes to the programmers who merely used the computer as a tool.

jing jing on October 7, 2020

Hi thank you for the explanation. Would you sayGraham support the notion expressed in D but Adelaide does not give any indication whether he supports D or not? Thank you

Anthony on July 2, 2021

Hello! I think that Graham indicates by the clear language of his statement that he attributes the defeat of the chess champion to the "devisers" of the computer that did so. Since Graham can be said to agree that the victory is attributed to the "devisers" of the computer that defeated the chess champion, it is not clear that he disagrees with the statement in answer choice C in my opinion. Can someone PLEASE prove me wrong so that I can figure out what I am missing and avoid this mistake in the future? Thanks for your help!