The relationship between which one of the following pairs of documents is most analogous to the relationship between ...

dace on July 28, 2019

Explaining the Relationships

All: Can someone please explain the relationships we should be understanding from all of these document titles and how they relate (either correctly or incorrectly) to the passage? Thank you.

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Victoria on August 8, 2019

Hi @dace,

Let's start by going through the two passages. We need to understand the main point of each before we can draw analogies between the content of the passages and the titles presented in the answer choices.

Passage A tells us that "there is no universally accepted definition within international law for the term 'national minority." While it is commonly applied to people under the jurisdiction of one nation who have ethnic ties to another nation OR people who are different from the minority in ethnicity, religion, or language, this common application is also complicated by the lack of a clear definition of 'people' and 'nation' in international law. The second paragraph of Passage A tells us that these vague and unclear definitions cause problems for numerous minority groups, but especially the Roma (Gypsies) for numerous reasons.

Passage B begins by introducing Capotorti's definition of a minority and its four empirical criteria: (1) a group is numerically smaller than the rest of the nation's population; (2) a group is nondominant; (3) a group has distinctive ethnic, linguistic, or religious characteristics; and (4) a group has a desire to preserve their own culture. This definition also has one legal criterion: the group is citizens of the state in question. Passage B also links this definition to the Roma. The Roma meet all four empirical criteria but often have issues meeting the legal criterion. This leads the author of Passage B to argue that the legal criterion is unfair and should not be included in Capotorti's definition.

Overall, Passage A discusses how the lack of a universally accepted definition of 'national minority' is problematic for the Roma and Passage B presents criteria for defining a national minority and outlines how this relates to the Roma.

We can see that this relationship is directly mirrored by answer choice A.

The Lack of Clear-Cut Criteria (no universally accepted definition) for Classifying Jobs as Technical (classifying people as a national minority) Causes Problems for Welders (Roma) and A Point-by-Point Argument (empirical criteria) that Welding (Roma) Fulfills the Union's Criteria (Capotorti's criteria) for Classification of Jobs as 'Technical' (classification as a national minority).

Answer choice B is incorrect because the first title (Passage A) focuses on the failure of the criteria to be effectively applied whereas Passage A focuses on the lack of a criteria. The second title (Passage B) is too broad because it focuses on professional standards as opposed to welding. This is equivalent to Passage B focusing on national minorities overall as opposed to specifically the Roma.

Answer choice C is incorrect because the first title focuses on the need for a revised definition of welding in relation to other technical jobs. Passage A focuses on the need for a revised definition of national minority but not in relation to any other definition or minority. The second title outlines a simple description of the essential job duties that are usually carried out by welders. In comparison, Passage B outlines criteria for national minorities to be defined as such. These criteria are rigid as opposed to being "usually" met by national minorities.

Answer choice D is incorrect because the first title focuses on the lack of competent welders and attributes it to a general disregard for professional and technical staff recruitment. Passage A suggests that there may be a lack of national minorities that are explicitly defined has such, but this is due to the lack of a comprehensive definition not a disregard for the process of defining them. The second title highlights factors to be considered when recruiting employees. Similar to the issue with answer choice C, Passage B outlines rigid criteria as opposed to factors to consider.

Finally, answer choice E is incorrect because the first title focuses on conceptual links between professionalism and technical expertise. It fails to discuss the welders (Roma) and Passage A is focused on an explicit definition not conceptual links. The second title refutes the union's position regarding which jobs should be classified as neither professional nor technical whereas Passage B supports the majority of Capotorti's definition and focuses on how the Roma should be classified as a national minority as opposed to how they shouldn't be.

Hope this is helpful! Please let us know if you have any further questions.