Many physicists claim that quantum mechanics may ultimately be able to explain all fundamental phenomena, and that, t...

Amanda on October 18, 2019

Difference between answer choice C and E?

Greetings, what is the difference in reasoning between answer choice C and E?

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on October 19, 2019

Hello @AmMaSu,

Before I look at the answer choices, I'm trying to simplify the argument in my own words.
"This happened consistently in the past, therefore it will happen in the future" is what I came up with.

This is most closely matched by answer choice C. The sister never won a chess tournament in the past, therefore she won't win this one. It seems like you understand why C is correct.

I'll explain how E is different, but I see why it was confusing. Its use of "has" does make it seem like it is using the past to predict the future. However, E is actually not referring to a past event vs. future event. Rather, it is referring to parts of a whole vs. the whole itself. I'll make up an example to demonstrate the difference.

C: "The chef has never made a good pizza, therefore his next pizza will be bad."
E: "The ingredients of the pizza are bad, therefore the pizza will be bad."

I hope this is helpful.

Kath on October 22, 2019

Nice illustration! Thanks!