Theorist: To be capable of planned locomotion, an organism must be able both to form an internal representation of i...

lerondagates on November 4, 2019


Can someone diagram A? I believe I diagrammed this one incorrectly. I am not clearly seeing why A is the answer here. Thanks!

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Irina on November 4, 2019


Let's start by diagramming the stimulus.

To be capable of locomotion (A) an organism must be able to form representation (B) and to send messages (C). Locomotion is a sufficient condition, and representation & messages are necessary conditions.

A- > B & C

Such an organism must have a central nervous system (D). This premise presumes that for an organism to be able to form representation/ send messages, it must have a central nervous system.

B&C -> D
A-> D

Thus an organism incapable of planned locomotion (A) does not have a central nervous system (D)


This is a flawed argument, the only proper inference is that:

~D ->~A
No nervous system -> no locomotion as nervous system is a necessary condition for locomotion.

(A) correctly points out the flaw - the argument confuses a necessary condition, i.e. central nervous system for an organism possessing capacity, i.e . locomotion with a sufficient one. Since the conclusion given in the stimulus is no locomotion - > no nervous system, this conclusion is reached from the following premise: nervous system -> locomotion, where nervous system is a sufficient condition for locomotion. But there is no such premise in the argument, instead we have a premise saying locomotion -> nervous system, where nervous system is a necessary condition - hence the conclusion confuses the necessary for sufficient condition.

Let me know if this makes sense and if you have any further questions.