The author uses the word "immediacy" (line 39) most likely in order to express

#JW on November 7, 2019

Example 3 Conditional Language v Example 4 Cause and Effect Language

Since this is a Sufficient and Necessary Lesson I diagrammed the passage in Example 3, "migrations bring about intermingling of ideas.. (M-->II)" as a conditional statement, no issues. No issues diagramming the passage of Example 4; however, answer choice 2 says "led" and that is stated to be a cause and effect statement. My question is how is "led" different than "bring about" or something like "resulted in?" Is there key language in the passage or answer choices that allows someone to determine causal vs conditional? Thanks.

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SamA on November 7, 2019

Hello @#JW,

Based on what you wrote about migration, it seems like you properly diagrammed both example three and example four. These are conditional statements. If there was a drastic shift in climate, then there was migration. If there was a monetary system, then there was a marketplace. However, we have to stick to the information here. We do not want to speculate about causation unless the passage tells us specifically to do so. Keep it simple. If this, then that.

How do we know if a passage is giving us a cause and effect? You are correct. Phrases like "resulted in," "bring about," and "led to" indicate a cause and effect. These are not different.

However, causation is a tricky thing. It's hard to prove. It will usually occur in the conclusion of the argument, requiring support and evidence from the author that we can evaluate. It is not often presented as fact, unless the question stem says, "if the author's statements are true..."

Let's look at example four. "Monetary systems have developed only in population centers with marketplaces." That's a fact. No argument here, no cause and effect. MS - - - - - -> MP is all we can conclude. Can we say for certain that monetary systems led to the development of market places? No. This is the problem with B. We can be certain that E is true. If there's no marketplace, then there's no monetary system.