The author uses the word "immediacy" (line 39) most likely in order to express

joseorellana on December 1, 2019

Example 8

For answer choice D, negating even one variable makes it invalid? Because the initial flaw negated both variables and answer choice D only negates the sufficient statement.

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Skylar on December 1, 2019

@joseorellana, happy to help!

The initial flaw and answer choice (D) each negate both the sufficient and the necessary variables.

(D) states "In the event that my flight had been late, I would have missed the committee meeting. Fortunately, my flight is on time. Therefore, I will make it to the meeting,"

We can diagram the first sentence as:
FL (flight is late) -> not M (would miss the meeting/no meeting).
We can diagram the second sentence as:
not FL (flight is not late) -> M (meeting)

So, we see "FL" negated to "not FL" and "not M" negated to "M." This is a flawed argument because we only negate and do not reverse. As you noted, the initial flaw also only negated both variables, so (D) follows the same pattern of reasoning and is the correct answer.

Does that make sense? Please let us know if you have any additional questions!