People who have experienced a traumatic event but who did not subsequently develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PT...

Alexander on January 25, 2020


Please explain why the correct answer is not E. If the adrenal gland is damaged and producing more cortisol because it is working improperly, that is not a stress response, thus weakening the argument. Thanks.

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Andrea on January 28, 2020

Hi @Alexander-Blankers,

Like Skylar said in her recent response to another one of your posts, I am having trouble seeing the question your post is associated with. If you are able to respond with the prep test number (or month and year of the exam), the section number, and the question number, I should be able to help you out.

For example, 74-1-24 refers to prep test 74, section 1, question 24.

Then, myself or another tutor would be happy to assist you in better understanding this one!

Alexander on January 28, 2020

It's September 2019 - 4 - 23

Alexander on January 28, 2020

I honestly don't know... I'll try to find it. I "started a discussion" on this question...

Irina on February 2, 2020


This is a correlation-causation question. The conclusion in the argument implies the following relationship: traumatic event -> more cortisol. (E) actually strengthens the argument as it provides additional facts explaining the mechanics of this process: traumatic event - > gland is damaged -> more cortisol. The correct answer (B) on the other hands point out that the relationship is likely reversed and people who already have higher levels of cortisol -> and experience a traumatic event - > are less likely to develop PTSD. Since this statement suggests that some people already have higher levels of cortisol independent of traumatic event, (B) weakens the relationship relied upon in the argument.

Avi on May 25, 2020

I had the same issue with this question. Now I see that B can be right (when I originally saw the question I thought that B meant that the increased cortisol helps prevent future stress events from becoming PTSD which would't weaken), but I still don't understand why E is wrong. The question assumes that there is more cortisol in response to stress. But answer E sounds like that the body always produces more cortisol (even not in response to stress) due to damage thus invoking effect (more cortisol) without cause (more stress).

Emil on September 29, 2022


E tells us that trauma makes on produce more cortisol in general. This does not weaken the idea that it makes one produce more cortisol in response to stress. The baseline is higher, but this does not mean that the increase doesn't happen in response to additional stress,.