The passage states which one of the following?

Mazen on March 15 at 11:50PM

Example 8: Please help with the Last sentence: "but only because"

Hello, The last statement of the eighth example uses the phrase "but only because." What does "but only because" introduce, the sufficient, a cause,...? Or is it equivalent to "if but only if" in that it introduces both the necessary and the sufficient? "Human beings in certain situations react to unpleasant stimuli with violence - but only because they are conditioned by their culture to react in this manner." Is it safe to interpret the statement as follows: If human beings are conditioned by their culture to react in a violent manner to unpleasant stimuli, then they will react accordingly in these situations? Or is this a cause and effect statement that precludes me from diagramming it or phrasing it in a sufficient-necessary format, such that the sufficient is the culture which conditioned human being to react violently to certain unpleasant stimuli, and the necessary is the human being reacting as they were conditioned by their culture to do so? Please help!

3 Replies

Andrea on March 16 at 04:16AM

Hi @Mazen,

Let me see if I can help with this one!

Let’s take a quick minute to recap the right answer here, answer choice B. Answer choice B says: The self expression REQUIRED for survival is generally nonaggressive.

The line we can trace this back to in the stimulus is the first one, “Violence is an extreme form of aggression, and is distinct from the self-expression that is SUFFICIENT for survival under normal conditions.

We don’t actually know anything about what’s required, the line only tells us what’s sufficient. Those are two different benchmarks, so we can’t conclude one from the other!

In regards to your more specific question, I would diagram it like this:

If a human being in certain situations reacts to unpleasant stimuli with violence, then it is because they are conditioned by their culture to react in this manner.

“Only” introduces a necessary condition. Agreed that it looks a little awkward with the added “but only because” element!

Hope this helps. Feel free to follow up if you have anymore questions!

Mazen on March 17 at 06:52AM

So, "but only because" is treated the same as "only," or, "only when," in that it introduces the necessary condition. I had it reversed! Thank you Andrea.

Ravi on March 17 at 07:39PM

@Mazen, that is correct. Let us know if you have any other questions!