Polling data reveal that an overwhelming majority of nine–year–olds can correctly identify the logos of major cigaret...

Flavio on December 6, 2016

Why is A correct?

I'm not seeing the similarity between the argument and answer choice A.

1 Reply

Mehran on December 8, 2016

@Flavio the issue with the argument in the stimulus is an unrepresentative sample.

How many 9-year-old children smoke cigarettes?

It would be far more useful to know what percentage of these 9-year olds smoke cigarettes when they get older, particularly when they are of legal smoking age.

Stated another way, we need a sample of individuals who can smoke cigarettes to determine if there is any connection between recognition of cigarette brand logos and smoking. For example, a study of adults over the age of 18.

(A) exhibits the exact same flaw. It attempts to refute the LONG-TERM effect on dolphins of small quantities of mercury with a 3-month study that showed no effect on the animals.

Again, to assess the long-term effect on dolphins of small quantities of mercury, we would need a study that observed these dolphins over the long-term, not merely for 3-months.

As such, (A) would be the correct answer.

Hope that helps! Please let us know if you have any other questions.